Why specifically that word, I mean. Library.
Most western languages, be they Romance, Germanic, Hellenic or Slavic, use a word based on the Greek biblio (meaning “book”) and theke ( meaning “container“, “receptacle” and/or “collection”). Makes total sense, right? Even the Latin-speaking Romans borrowed the word from the Greeks (along with their land, religion, art and various aspects of their architecture and culture, but that’s a topic for another time).
Bosnian – biblioteka
Danish – bibliotek
Dutch – bibliotheek
French – bibliothèque
German – Bibliothek
Greek – βιβλιοθήκη (bibliothíki)
Italian – biblioteca
Latin – bibliotheca
Latvian – bibliotēka
Lithuanian – biblioteka
Macedonian – библиотека (biblioteka)
Norwegian – bibliotek
Polish – biblioteka
Portuguese – biblioteca
Romanian – bibliotecă
Russian – библиотека (biblioteka)
Serbian – библиотека (biblioteka)
Spanish – biblioteca
Swedish – bibliotek
Ukrainian – бібліотека (biblioteka)
Short answer for busy people: English has a complicated history.
Snarky answer for people that have traumatic flashbacks to English class: English wouldn’t be English if it didn’t make everything more difficult than necessary.
Actual answer for the genuinely curious: So… England (where modern English comes from), for being a relatively small island within conquering distance, has been pretty good at repelling invasions throughout much of its history; at least for the last thousand years or so. Before that it was a bit more touch and go.
In the 5th century, when the Romans (who took the island from the Celts about 400 years earlier… who had themselves taken the island from an earlier culture 400 or 500 years before that) bailed due to problems at home, and because 400 years of English weather and angry Celts throwing spears at you would get to anyone, the Anglo-Saxons were there to take advantage of the power vacuum. They brought the Anglo-Saxon language from their original home in what is now northern Germany with them to the island (Anglo-land, Angland, England, English). That’s why English is a Germanic language. But we’re not done with invasions yet! Then this guy named William the Conqueror (guess what he was good at) showed up in 1066 from what is now northern France with a bunch of guys that speak French.
So French became the language of the ruling class but it didn’t push out the existing Germanic Old English (Anglo-Saxon) language, it just layered over the top of it and added a ton of Old French (Romance language) words to a Germanic language (just one of the reasons English is a weird as it is). One of those words was librairie (meaning “a collection of books” or “a bookseller’s shop”)!
We’re in the homestretch now, I promise.
The weird thing is that librairie was an Old French word that came from librarium, the Latin word for “chest of books” or “bookcase” (which is in turn from liber, Latin for “book”). You remember Latin, the language that took the Greek word for library, bibliotheke. So when Romance languages, that came from Latin, went looking for a word to mean “library” they kept the borrowed Greek word that meant “library” (go figure), but the Germanic language with romantic influences adopted a different Romantic word that meant “bookshop” and gradually changed it to mean “library”. There are, I’m sure, all sorts of cultural and historical reasons that would help explain why this might have happened but we won’t get into it here – I’m tired. Meanwhile, guess how to say “bookshop” in French. If you guessed librairie have a croissant!
Fascinating. And horribly convoluted. It makes you feel for anyone trying to learn English as a second language, doesn’t it?